Category: ‘Uncategorized’

Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test (CDAAST)

June 26, 2021 Posted by kyu7

The Comprehensive Drug and Alcohol Abuse Screening Test (CDAAST)

Client Name: ___________________________________________________ Date: ________________

Directions: The following questions concern information about your involvement with drugs and/or alcohol. Carefully read each statement. Then decide whether your answer is YES or NO and check the appropriate space. Please be sure to answer every question.

1. Alcohol or drug use caused me to use poor judgment and drive right afterwards because I felt “fine” to drive, wasn’t far to go, and I had no other way home: ___ Yes ___ No

2. I thought I was okay to drive after drinking and/or using drugs but I wasn’t: ___ Yes ___ No

3. I got a 2nd, 3rd, or 4th DUI after swearing it would never happen again: ___ Yes ___ No

4. I could kill somebody if I’m driving impaired: ___ Yes ___ No

5. I completed one or more alcohol or drug abuse treatment programs, yet I couldn’t drink just 1 or 2 drinks every time so ended up getting in trouble after drinking and/or using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

6. I believe that since I was able to quit drinking or using for awhile (after drinking and/or using caused me problems) and I don’t crave it, miss it, or even think about it, I now don’t have a drinking or drug problem: ___ Yes ___ No

7. I think about drinking or using drugs daily: ___ Yes ___ No

8. I drink use drugs to keep the buzz (good feeling): ___ Yes ___ No

9. I like to drink or use too much: ___ Yes ___ No

10. When I pick up the first drink and/or drug I think about the next one: ___ Yes ___ No

11. When I pick up the first drink I really enjoy the taste: ___ Yes ___ No

12. I like the feeling alcohol and/or drugs gives me when I’m under its power: ___ Yes ___ No

13. I know I shouldn’t drink and use drugs but I do it anyhow: ___ Yes ___ No

14. I can’t predict what will happen after I drink and/or use the first drug: ___ Yes ___ No

15. It’s tough to do the right thing while drinking using drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

16. My decision making process becomes irrational and my behavior and personality changes when I drink and/or use drugs. I argue a lot when I drink and/or use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

17. I’m not honest when I drink use drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

18. Occasionally I drink or use too much and get into trouble. I have said and done things that I normally wouldn’t have done when sober: ___ Yes ___ No

19. I got nasty or goofy when I drank and/or used drugs: ___ Yes ___ No

20. I do not have the self control to know when enough is enough: ___ Yes ___ No

21. When I drink or use drugs I can’t control myself the way I do when sober: ___ Yes ___ No

22. When I start drinking using drugs I don’t want to stop: ___ Yes ___ No

23. I sometimes have trouble stopping after 1 or 2 drinks: ___ Yes ___ No

24. I can never have just one drink: ___ Yes ___ No

25. I continue to drink and use once I get started: ___ Yes ___ No

Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems

May 25, 2021 Posted by kyu7

Introduction

Pharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of illness and disease by means of drugs of chemical or biological origin. It ranks among the most important methods of medical treatment, together with surgery, physical treatment, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is almost impossible to estimate the exact extent of the impact of pharmacotherapy on human health, there can be no doubt that pharmacotherapy, together with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved people’s health, life expectancy and quality of life.

Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology today offer a plethora of new drug targets. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in shorter times than ever before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid progress in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.

However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, it is necessary to develop suitable dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow the effective, safe and reliable application of these bioactive compounds to the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is just one part of the medicine administered to the patient and it is the formulation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.

Indeed the drug delivery system employed plays a vital role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side-effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration.

Drug delivery systems

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

· Drug delivery systems according to the physical state

Based on physical state, drug delivery systems may be:

- Gaseous (e.g. anaesthetics),

- Liquid (e.g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions),

- Semisolid (e.g. creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and

- Solid dosage forms (e.g. powders, granules, tablets and capsules).

· Drug delivery systems according to route of administration

Another way of differentiating dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.

- Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, through injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration into the body it can be differentiated into:

a) Subcutaneous injection

b) Intramuscular injection

c) Intravenous injection

d) Intradermal injection

e) Intraperitoneal injection

Effective Drugs Not Priced For The Low Income Consumer

April 25, 2021 Posted by kyu7

There have been many new biological drugs approved by the FDA to treat psoriasis since 2003 as one example of an inflated drug price that most lower income people can’t get access to because Medicaid and Medicare won’t pay for them due to the skyrocketing prices. The new blood thinner “Eliquis” is paid for by Medicaid and Medicare at $200 a bottle. The COPD inhalers which are fairly new are also paid for by the government without hesitation in the area of $150 a pop. Some states pay for the very expensive $400 and above hearing aids and some don’t. So why aren’t the new biological drugs that came out to treat psoriasis since 2003 paid for by the government?

I guess this is one moment where I’m going to answer the question I just asked of this articles readers. In the above linked article I posted to go with this article the author states these biological drugs to treat psoriasis will NOT be available to people who are on Medicaid and Medicare because of price. All the drug companies who have created their own biological psoriasis treatments have pushed people on Medicaid and Medicare away from receiving treatment with these drugs through the high cost of the drugs. Medicare Part D prescription drug plan will pay the bulk cost of “biological’s” but the co pay is between $1200 and $5000 which still keeps people from getting the biological’s.

The spin is a few of these biological drug companies have programs to supply the drugs free to low income patients who have private insurance only. Drug companies have stated in many articles I’ve read that if the patients have Medicare or Medicaid they will NOT be eligible for the free programs.

Quote From GoodRX.com: The lowest GoodRx price for the most common version of Humira is around $5,130.76, 38% off the average retail price of $8,309.04.

These biological psoriasis treatments are not life saving so Medicare and Medicaid do not recognize the inflated cost by drug companies as a necessary expense. The drug companies know this and want it this way. Back in 2003 when these biological psoriasis treatments were entering the drug marketplace they were affordable and insurance companies picked up the costs if a reasonable deductible was paid. After 2012 the insurance companies started to remove people with psoriasis because the payouts on the biological treatments were going up and getting extremely expensive.

The “Epipen Injector” used to treat heroin overdoses was attacked viciously by the U.S. government when the owner of the company jacked up the price so high only the really wealthy could afford them. Medicaid and Medicare in some states do cover generic Epipen’s but reject brand names. I’ve come to my conclusion about why this and other high drug prices are happening that keep some of these drugs out of the reach of many people who are on Medicare and Medicaid.

Come ON! of course it’s collusion between the “Big Pharma” drug industry and members of congress. But when the collusion deals go bad it’s the drug industry that is forced to take the fall.

When these scams to gain personal wealth come to light as in the opioid epidemic that is ongoing now where billions of dollars are being paid out by the drug companies to the states our congressional representatives who profited off of opioids though insider trading investments walk around with no chance of repercussion for their involvement in the scheme.

If you look at Canada which is a country where government has to pay for ALL healthcare costs you will see the lowest prices on quality drugs anywhere because the government forces prices down to lower government expenditures. All the drug companies that put together high profit drug plans to fill their pockets are destroyed without question by the Canadian government. In the U.S. our congressional representatives steer thought away from destroying excessive profit taking by the drug companies because they are invested in these drug companies for their own personal profit. Congressional Representatives enter congress with meager wealth and leave with excessive riches.

I just bet ya if a person gained access to the investments of our congressional leaders they would find many instances of drug company investments who have extremely high drug prices on popular needed drugs that really work to improve a persons health. Congress voted to give drug companies a 20 year patent before generics could be produced with a 5 year extension if certain conditions are met knowing that high drug prices would develop giving congressional insiders great profit making investment opportunities.

Hooked on Drugs

March 26, 2021 Posted by kyu7

Drug addiction is a chronic disease that feeds the receptors in the brain, giving a feeling of high. From the first smoke, the first snowball, and the first snort onwards, the individual experiences a roller coaster ride fueled by gigantic “highs” and devastating “falls.” At times, the drug user could experience the feeling of going down the rabbit hole with no respite in sight from the barrage of hallucinations, negative feelings like self-doubt, withdrawal symptoms, etc.

From the time one wakes up until he or she finally rests for the day, a person addicted to drugs could be going through several emotional upheavals. A brief account of what he or she experiences is provided below.

    • Feeding the beast: Drug addiction is a beast, an enormous beast that is always hungry. Hard to please. A person who has been drawn into the maze of drug use is constantly preoccupied with the task of obtaining drugs. From the time he or she wakes up, he is tasked by the “how,” “when” and the “where” to obtain drug. While the rest worry about food, job, friends, family and kids, a person living with a drug habit worries about the dwindling supply of drugs, and how he or she would get by another day without his or her dose of Vicodin, OxyContin or crack. As explained by someone who has been into drugs, feeding the drug habit is a full-time job, and the possibility of a person tending to other responsibilities, such as family, friends and job, is remote.

 

    • Fending off the withdrawal scare: Quitting drugs is not easy. Most drugs cause physical dependence and addiction. As a result, a person who has been hooked on a drug for long is loath to leave it. Whether it is physical or psychological dependence, the pangs of drug withdrawal cause a relapse or remission and force the user to act, think and feel in ways that might seem bizarre or irresponsible to others. The withdrawal pangs may range from mild to severe. Even ordinary sleeping aids, such as Ambien, when used for long, result in withdrawal pain. Stronger drugs like opioids and meth, on the other hand, are associated with excruciatingly severe withdrawal symptoms and if there is no timely intervention it may even result in an overdose death. While drugs like heroin and cocaine are associated with a physical dependence, others, such as speed or hallucinogens, cause dependence that is psychological in nature.

 

    • Euphoria quickly fades away: One of the primary reasons why people use drugs is because it causes the feeling of euphoria. Drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), Ritalin, Adderall, amphetamine, meth and cocaine trigger the release of neurotransmitters and make one feel good. Euphoria is a feeling of happiness and well-being. However, the euphoria quickly fades away and one is left feeling dazed, lonely and sad.

 

    • Drawn into the endless circle of manipulations and lies: Those who have the drug habit are not born liars or manipulators. Unfortunately, drug abuse and addiction could cause them to use unethical means, such as manipulations or lies. Most teens resort to lying to coerce money out of their parents. Lying about pursuing a new hobby or hitchhiking trip or paying off a car loan while all they care about is buying the next day’s supply of drugs could cause them to resent themselves in the long run.

 

    • Losing friends and jobs: It is hard to keep a drug addiction a secret and employers are rarely sympathetic to people who have a drug habit. Inevitably, the pressure of employment and feeding a drug habit too soon spirals out of control and the individual loses his or her job, self-respect and friends.

 

  • Fearing being found alone dead or overdosed: There is always the fear of being found alone overdosed and dead. Overdosing deaths have shown a dramatic upsurge and it is reported that in 2015 alone, nearly 52,000 Americans lost their lives to drug overdoses, which included 33,000 deaths related to heroin, fentanyl and other opioids. In order to stem the tide of deaths due to overdosing, certain groups have called for safe houses or places where one can smoke or inject drugs under medical supervision.