Archive for: ‘May 25, 2021’

Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems

May 25, 2021 Posted by kyu7

Introduction

Pharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of illness and disease by means of drugs of chemical or biological origin. It ranks among the most important methods of medical treatment, together with surgery, physical treatment, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is almost impossible to estimate the exact extent of the impact of pharmacotherapy on human health, there can be no doubt that pharmacotherapy, together with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved people’s health, life expectancy and quality of life.

Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology today offer a plethora of new drug targets. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in shorter times than ever before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid progress in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.

However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, it is necessary to develop suitable dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow the effective, safe and reliable application of these bioactive compounds to the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is just one part of the medicine administered to the patient and it is the formulation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.

Indeed the drug delivery system employed plays a vital role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side-effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration.

Drug delivery systems

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

· Drug delivery systems according to the physical state

Based on physical state, drug delivery systems may be:

- Gaseous (e.g. anaesthetics),

- Liquid (e.g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions),

- Semisolid (e.g. creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and

- Solid dosage forms (e.g. powders, granules, tablets and capsules).

· Drug delivery systems according to route of administration

Another way of differentiating dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.

- Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, through injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration into the body it can be differentiated into:

a) Subcutaneous injection

b) Intramuscular injection

c) Intravenous injection

d) Intradermal injection

e) Intraperitoneal injection